Genealogy has become a hobby for me over the last 10 years. For me, it's like a puzzle, I love fitting the pieces together. But over the years, I've researched a lot that does not pertain to our family lines. Some for extended family, some for close friends, and some because I was trying to rule out lines to figure out where our line went exactly. I do not want these notes on my Heather's Genealogy Notes blog - because they are not our lines. But I do like to share all of my research, in case it benefits others. That is what this blog is for - research I have done that does not apply to our own family lines, but may be helpful for someone else.

Sunday, April 29, 2012

Robert Covenhoven 1755-1846

Robert Covenhoven
Robert Covenhoven

son of Albert & Sarah (Wycoff) Covenhoven
Robert is the brother of Crecy Covenhoven, who married William Hepburn
Born Dec. 7, 1755
Died Oct. 29, 1846
married February 22, 1778, Northumberland PA
  Mercy Kelsey Cutter
Born 1755
Died 1843


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Revolutionary War hero. Most well known for carrying the evacuation message via horseback to all the forts and blockhouses up the Susquahanna River which was the start of the great runaway of 1780. All of this part of Pennsylvania was evacuated for several years due to Indian trouble.
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Robert Covenhoven, who had served under George Washington in the Continental Army and survived the attacks of June 10, rode west along the ridge of Bald Eagle Mountain to warn settlers at Fort Antes (opposite what is now Jersey Shore) and the western part of the valley.[1] Covenhoven is listed as a Fair Play Man and one of the signers of the Tiadaghton Declaration of Independence.




SOME PENNSYLVANIA WOMEN DURING THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION.
MERCY KELSEY CUTTER COVENHOVEN.

Among the matrons of the Revolution who lived on the northern frontiers of the State during the dark and gloomy days of the struggle for liberty, there were few who endured more sufferings, trials and privations than Mercy Kelsey Cutter Covenhoven. She was born in New Jersey, January 19, 1755, and was raised in that Province. Very little is known of her parents. They emigrated to the West Branch Valley of the Susquehanna probably as early as 1776, and settled near the mouth of Loyalsock creek, in what is now Lycoming county. About that time there was a large emigration from New Jersey to the West Branch, the attraction being the report of the fine lands in that section and the opportunity for acquiring homes.

That the family yet lived in New Jersey when Washington and the British were operating in that Province is attested by the story of a romantic incident in her life. It is related that Miss Cutter was captured by the Hessians near Trenton, robbed of her silver shoe buckles, partly denuded of her clothing and tied to a tree. In this condition she was found by young Covenhoven and released. Soon after this both families emigrated to Pennsylvania and settled at Loyalsock, as stated above, for the records show that Robert Covenhoven and Mercy K. Cutter were married February 22, 1778. The marriage evidently grew out of the romantic incident in New Jersey. He was the son of Peter Covenhoven and born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, December 7, 1755. At this period the times were perilous on the West Branch. The Indians were incited by the British to commit the most atrocious acts of butchery on the settlers, [p.56] and soon the Big Runaway followed by the flight of all to Fort Augusta for safety. The savages soon followed and swept the valley as with a besom of destruction, leaving nothing but blackened ruins in their rear. Robert Covenhoven early became a noted scout and partisan ranger. Active, fearless and sleepless, he rendered invaluable service to the commander of the county militia, and the notches cut on the back of his big hunting knife (which has been preserved) clearly tell that he caused at least nine savages to bite the dust. He was most active preceding the Big Runaway in warning the settlers of the approach of the large body of Indians, and in preparing them for the memorable flight down the river. Before the panic was fairly precipitated, he removed his wife and father's family to Fort Augusta, and it was while returning up the river, near where Watsontown now stands, that they met the motley procession of canoes, flat-boats and "hog troughs," loaded with women and children and household goods, fleeing down the stream for saftey. The men, armed with rifles and driving cattle, marched on shore to protect their families from the lurking foe.

Mrs. Covenhaven was a woman noted for coolness and personal bravery, and her presence always greatly aided in inspiring confidence among the weak and easily discouraged. No woman of her time displayed more courage or truer heroism in those dark and gloomy days. Her husband accompanied Colonel Hartley in his daring march to Tioga point as a guide and spy, and with his own hands assisted in burning the wigwam of the bloody Queen Esther. It would require the space of a whole dvolume to relate all the stirring incidents in the life of Covenhoven. As soon as the panic was over, Mrs. Covenhaoven returned to her home on the Loyalock and there continued to live till independence was fairly won. On the restoration of peace, Robert Covenhoven purchased a farm in what is called "Level Corner" Lycoming County in 1785, and there he and his wife -- one of the true heroines of the Revolution -- settled. In the later years of their lives, their names were changed to Crownover and as such their few male decendants are now known. On this farm the faithful brave and courageous wife of the veteran ranger died November 27, 1843 at the mature age of 88 years, 10 months and 8 days and her remains were laid to rest in the old Williamsport graveyard, where they were undisturbed until the "march of improvement" demanded their removal to Wildwood cemetery a few years ago. Borne down by the weight of years, her husband did not long survive her. Soon after the death of his wife, he went to live with a daughter near Northumberland and there he died October 29, 1846 at the patriarchal age of 90 years, 10 months, and 22 days. He was buried in the graveyard of the old Presyterian church at Northumberland - now a common - and his plain marble tombstone may be seen standing alone and as erect as a sentinel on duty. It has always been a source of deep regret that the decendants of this hero and heroine of the Revolution permitted the remains to lie 40 miles apart. They were the parents of 8 children. James the eldest, was born September 9, 1782 date of death unknown; and Maria, the youngest was born April 4 1804, was married three times and died in KS in January 1879. A fine painting of the old ranger, and his pistol, huntinkine, axe and pocket compass are now in the possession of George L. Sanderson, a grandson, and are treasured sacred relics of "the days that tried men's souls" and for the thrilling associations that cluster around them.
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From History of Lycoming County, Pennsylvanisa. Edited by John F. Meginness, Chicago, Ill. brown, Runk & Co., Publishers 1892 Pages 117, 118, 119, 241
"Robert became distinguished as a guide, spy, and Indian killer. Soon after coming to the valley, Albert Covenhoven lost all his effects by a sudden freshet in the creek, and the family were reduced to great distress. On the breaking out of the Revolution, Robert joined the Continental army, but late in 1777 he returned home on account of the expiration of his enlistment and at once took an active part in aiding to protect the frontier. The neigbors of the Covenhovens were the Thomsons, Wychoffs, Van Camps, Van Nests, etc. All of these, save the first mentioned, were of Hollandish descent."

From A History of the West Branch Valley by J. F. Meginness, (John of Lancaster) A Reprint of the 1889 Edition Gateway Press, Inc. Baltimore 1991
"Late in the year 1777, Robert Covenhoven returned to the West Branch from the Continental army, his term of enlistment having expired. His extensive knowledge of the country, the character, habits, and disposition of the Indians, acquired whilst serving with surveying parties, was of great service, and he was disposed to make good use of it for the benefit of the settlement.

An old man named Wyckoff, who appears to have been an uncle to the Covenhovens, also settled about Loyalsock. He was a tanner by trade and soon erected a rude tannery and commenced making leather for the settlement. One day in the summer of 1778, the Covenhoven boys were mowing in a meadow and the old man Wyckoff was at work in his tannery. A dog suddenly commenced barking and exhibited great symptoms of alarm; he would run towards the woods, snuff the air, and return. The boys were satisfied that Indians were lurking near. They took their rifles and warned the old man to leave; this he at first refused to do, alleging that there was no danger. They finally induced him to go with them; they had not proceeded far till one of them hissed the dog when he bounded into the bushes and seized an Indian by the leg where he was lying concealed. He rose immediately and shot the faithful animal. The whites, who were in all six in number, immediately jumped to trees--the Indians did the same and firing commenced. Wyckoff, who was very much humpbacked, got behind a tree that was too small to hide all of his person. Fortunately for him, another small tree stood between him and the Indians, as they fired at him,their bullets struck this tree and made the bark fly around Robert Covenhoven,who was near. He yelled at the old man to stand up straight, or he would be hit.

As Robert was loading his rifle, his ramrod was shot in two, but luckily he had a wiper, with which he rammed down the bullet. Just at this moment, he observed an Indian stealthily creeping around to get a fair shot at old Wyckoff; watching him closely, till
he attempted to crawl over a log, he fired and shot him through the body. He sprang in the air, gave a tremendous yell, and fell. His comrades rushed up and bore him off, when the whites made away as rapidly as possible. He appeared to be the chief or commander of the party, and no doubt it was lucky for the whites that he was shot.............

After this nearly all the inhabitants fled to the river and forted themselves at various points. This took place in the summer of 1778.
The immigrants from New Jersey, who had come up that spring and winter, set off again as rapidly as they could travel to their old homes.........

A number of horses had strayed away, and were supposed to have gone to LoyalSock. Captain Berry was ordered to take a company of twelve men and look after them. Robert Covenhoven, his two brothers James and Thomas, and his uncle, William Wyckoff were in the expedition. They proceeded to Loyal Sock where, it appears, they separated. Peter
Shoefelt, Wm. Wyckoff, and a man named Thompson, went above the creek, towards Williamsport, to Thompson's house, for the purpose of saving some of his property.

The remainder of the party continued up the creek. They proceeded cautiously through the narrows, but saw no signs of Indians. Not finding the horses, it was concluded to return. Covenhoven was suspicious that Indians were about and advised Capt. Berry not to return by the path they had come, as he feared an ambuscade.
Berry thought there was no danger and paid but little attention to him, who still insisted on taking another route over the mountain. Berry at length accused him of cowardice, an being needlessly alarmed. This irritated him very much, but he insisted no more, and going to his brothers, communicated to them his fears that they would be attacked by the enemy and probably all killed. He requested them to keep a sharp lookout and if the flash of a gun were seen, to jump to trees immediately.

They travel on without an molestation till they came to the narrows, and true to Covenhoven's expectation, were suddenly fired upon by a party of savages in ambush. Most of the party, including the reckless Capt. Berry, were shot down. James was shot through the shoulder and disabled. He cried to Robert that he was wounded and could do nothing, who immediately told him to run across the creek and he would try to cover his retreat. He succeeded in getting to the opposite side, when a ball struck him on the back part of the head, and he fell back on the edge of the creek dead. Robert ran for his life and jumped into an old treetop, where he loaded his rifle. He had not been there many minutes till a big savage came and stood on a log within a few feet of where he lay, looking all around and up the hill. He watched his eye, and was prepared to shoot the minute he was discovered, and then run for his life. Had the Indian but cast eye down to his feet, he would have beheld Covenhoven. He soon ran back over the creek, where they were scalping the killed. The shrieks of the wounded and the yells of the savages were terrible.

Covenhoven soon crawled out of the tree top and worked his way up the
mountain. An open spot of ground was before him, which he dared not cross, for fear of being seen and pursued. Coming to where an old tree had been blown out of root, he lay down in the hole and remained there until dark, when he started across the hills and reached Wallis' Fort in safety, and reported to the garrison the melancholy fate of the expedition.

His brother Thomas, with several others, was taken prisoner and carried into captivity. He returned after the war. !The other
party, Shoefelt, Wyckoff and Thompson, hitched their horses when they came to Thompson's house, for they appeared to have been riding, and went in and commenced cooking their dinner. The Indians, having been quietly observing the movements of the two parties, sent a party to capture them. When they came in sight the horses snorted and gave the alarm. Seizing their rifles, they attempted to run for the woods, but the Indians were too quick and firing a volley, killed Thompson and Shoefelt and shot Wyckoff through the shoulder, wounding him severely. He was taken prisoner and returned after a captivity of two years. !A story is related in connection with this tragical affair, but with how much truth I cannot say, that when Wyckoff was taken prisoner, he was quite bald-headed, but when returned from captivity, he had a fine head of hair. !Page 225 Robert Covenhoven was among the party which carried young Capt. James Brady back to Sunbury after he was scalped.

Page 247 Covenhoven as a Spy
In 1779, an approaching body of British and Indians was rumored, and it was determined to send an active man, well acquainted with all the paths and defiles, to see what intelligence he could glean of their
movements. Robert Covenhoven, who was then acting as a guide and scout for the garrison, being an expert woodsman, was selected for the dangerous task. He started alone, preferring no company, as he thought he could better elude observation than if accompanied by several men, who might not obey his instructions. Purposely avoiding all the Indian paths, he shaped his course through the wilderness, towards the headwaters of Lycoming Creek, and traveling all night, soon arrived in the vicinity of the enemy's camp. Secreting himself in a secure position, he lay, during the day, and heard several hundred shots, from which he judged that they were cleaning their guns. Being satisfied, that a large body was about to advance, he
started back over the rugged mountains, hungry and fatigued, and made as rapid progress as the nature of his path would admit. Striking an Indian path near Loyal Sock, it forcibly occurred to him that he might meet Indians if continued in it, and stepping out behind a tree to rest himself, had been there but a few minutes till two Indians rapidly passed him, humming a tune as they went. Had he continued on without stopping, they would have met him. When he arrived at the
settlements, he gave the alarm, and the terrified women and children were hastily put in boats, and sent down to Fort Augusta, under his charge. Fort Meninger, at the mouth of Warrior Run, was abandoned, and intelligence sent up to Freeland's Fort, to make preparations to leave as soon as possible.......

Page 188 There were fortifications in West Branch Valley.
It is true that they scarcely merited the name, with the exception of one or two, and were destitute of cannon, but thy served admirable purposes at that time. The settlers were forced to abandon their rude cabins, their little fields of grain, and seek refuge within these enclosures from the scalping knife of the savage. The women and children remained in the forts, whilst the men, in armed companies, would venture to their fields and houses, and cut their crops. Those who refused to seek the forts generally paid for their rashness with their lives.

Pennsylvania Archives, 5th Series, Vol. VIII
Capt. Hepburn's Co., Northumberland County, Pa. lists at Sunbury
Aug. 9, 1778
Sgt. Robert Covenhoven
Privates Joseph Wyckoff, James Covenhoven, John Covenhoven, Albert Covenhoven
Capt. Cookson Long's Co. lists on Dec. 31, 1776
Robert Covenhoven
James Covenhoven
Peter Wyckoff
Joseph Wyckoff
Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series,Vol. 19, p. 561. lists
Robert Crownover of Muncy Township, Northumberland Co., as paying taxes in 1783 and 1784 on one horse and one cow and in 1785 on two horses and two cows. !The same source, Turbutt Township, lists a William Wyckoff as paying taxes on 330 acres, five horses and six cows., in 1785

Same source, Muncy Township, lists Peter Wicoff as paying taxes on 200 acres, four horses, and five cows. Joseph Wicoff paid taxes on one horse and one cow, and an Isaac Wicoff also paid taxes of one pound and five shillings.
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Biographical Annals of deceased Residents of the West Branch Valley of the Susquehanna by J. f. Meginness, Williamsport, Pa; gazette and bulletin Printing house, 1889
"He grew to manhood in New Jersey, and when so many of the natives of that State emigrated to the West Branch Valley, before the commencement of the Indian troubles, his father was among them, bringing with him, a daughter, named Isabella and at least three sons. The family of Robert Covenhoven, with their relatives, settled on the Loyalsock and commenced making improvements. At first Robert
was employed as a hunter and axeman to the surveyors of land in the valleys of the North and West Branches of the Susquehanna. The familiarity thus acquired with all the paths of the wilderness at that time rendered his service eminently useful as a scout and guide to the military parties of the Revolution. At the call of his country in 1776, he joined the campaigns under General Washington. He was at the battles of Trenton and Princeton. His younger brother had also enlisted, but his father took his place and the General, with his characteristic kindness, permitted the boy to return and protect his mother.

In the autumn of 1777, Job Chilloway, a friendly Indian, had given intimation tht a powerful descent of maraunding Indians might be expected before long on the head waters of the Susquehanna. Near the close of that seas on the Indians killed a settler by the name of Saltsman, on the Sinnemahoning, and Daniel Jones at the mouth of the Tangascootac.

Mr.Covenhoven married Miss Mercy Kelsey Cutter, February 22, 1778. Very little is know of the family of Miss Cutter but that they were natives of New Jersey there seems to be no doubt. She was captured by the Hessians near Trenton, robbed of her silver shoe buckles, partly denuded of her clothing, and tied to a tree. In this condition she was found by Mr. Covenhoven, who was a soldier in the American army, and released. This was his first introduction to Miss Cutter, and the friendship formed on this occasion finally ripened into love, which resulted in marriage.

Robert was the principal guide to Colonel Harley when he made his famous march up Lycoming Creek in September, 1778. The expedition was sent out for the purpose of destroying Indian villages on the head waters of the North Branch and its tributaries. It consisted of about 200 men and started from Fort Muncy, September 21st. The march was tedious and perilous. The great swamp below Williamsport retarded their movements very much. They had several fights with Indians before they reached Tioga Point, and killed a number of them.

After inflicting great damage on the savages by destroying their towns and cornfields, the expedition descended the North Branch to Wyoming. They had a severe battle near Wyalusing, but succeeded in defeating the enemy. The expedition suffered much from fatigue and scarcity of provisions but got through with the loss of but few men. !In 1796, a Mr. Williamson, of New York, agent for Sir William Pulteney, opened a rough wagon road from Newberry to Painted Post, and Mr. Covenhoven was chosen to superintend the work. !Soon after peace had been restored by the last treaty at Fort Stanwix in
1784, and the disputed territory between Lycoming and Pine Creeks had been purchased and brought into market, he commenced looking around for a suitable location to estaablish a farm. He finally fixed on a tract situated in Level Corner, on the river, three miles East of Jersey Shore, and called "Conquest," which he purchased from James Hepburn and Mary, his wife, for 310 pounds, 15s, 8d. The deed was made August 11, 1790, and was acknowledged the same day. It may be found recorded in Deed book E, volume 5 page 141, Lycoming County, and as it recites some important facts, and extract is given.

In 1832 he applied through James Gamble, Esq, then a young attorney at Jersey Shore, and received a pension from the Government for
his services as a soldier and scout during the Revolution. It amounted to about one hundred dollars per annum. Robert was 90 years of age when he died in 1846, and was buried in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church, Northumberland.

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From Egle's Historical and Genealogical Notes and Queries pages 118-119.
"A Hero of the Revolution"
In the abandoned graveyard of the old Presbyterian church Northumberland, Pa., stand a plain, upright marble tombstone, bearing this inscription:
In Memory of ROBERT COVENHOVEN,
who was Born
December 7, 1775
And departed this Life
October 29th, 1846,
Aged 90 years, 10 months & 22 Days
He was an active
Partisan Guide of the
Revolutionary Army.

COVENHAVEN whose name was changed in modern days to CROWNOVER, was of Hollandish descent, and was born in Monmouth county, N. J. About 1772 he came with his parents, several brothers and a sister, and settled near the mouth of Loyalsock Creek. It was then in Berks county, but the same year Northumberland county was erected, which embraced the site of their settlement. It is now in the center of Lycoming county. The family of young COVENHAVEN suffered much at the hands of the savages. He became a noted spy, guide and frontiersman, and participated in the thrilling scenes of the Big Runaway in 1778. The full story of his life and adventures would fill a volume.

In an abandoned, dilapidated, and desecrated old graveyard, on Fourth Street, in the city of Williamsport, could be seen a few years ago a plain headstone, with this inscription:

Sacred
to the memory of
MERCY K. CUTTER,
Wife of Robert Covenhoven
Born January 19, 1755
And Departed this Life
November 27, 1843,
Aged 88 years, 10 months,
and 8 days.

The remains of the Revolutionary hero and his wife lie forty miles apart. She died nearly three years before her husband at their home in what is now Platt township, Lycoming county. Soon after, her husband, borne down by the weight of years, went to live with a daughter near Northumberland, and there he died, as stated above, and was buried. This explains how they came to be buried in separate places.

Another singular fact may be stated in connection with this historical couple. The ground in which the ashes of Covenhoven's wife now mingle, was deeded March 26, 1776, by Amariah Sutton for a burial place "forever" for the early settlers and their descendants. This was three months before the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed. The deed is on record at Williamsport. The ground was afterwards consecrated by the blood of half a dozen or more men, women and children cruelly slain by the savages within a few yards of the spot where they were laid. For three-quarters of a century it was used as a burial ground, and hundreds of early settlers there found a resting place. But civilization has desecrated the sacred ground, and the wishes of the donor, who was also buried there, have been
disregarded. It is one of the oldest graveyards in Northern Pennsylvania with a recorded title; but that makes no difference to the present generation. They care but little for the memories of the pioneers, and less for the sacredness of the ground in which they are buried.
JOHN OF LANCASTER, Williamsport."
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From Rupp's History of Pennsylvania
Indian Massacre in 1780 page 141-146
"In the spring of 1778 Col. Hepburn, afterwards Judge Hepburn, was stationed with a small force at Fort Muncy at the mouth of Wallis' run, near which several murders had been committed (by the Indians). The Indians had killed Brown's and Benjamin's families and had taken Cook and his wife prisoners on Loyalsock Cr. Col. Hunter of Fort Augusta, alarmed by these murders, sent orders to Frot Mucny that all the settlers in that vicinity should evacuate and take refuge at Sunbury. Col. Hepburn was ordered to pass on the orders to Antis' and Horn's forts above. To carry this message, none would volunteer except Covenhoven and a young Yankee millwright, an apprentice to Andrew Culbertson." Purposely avoiding all roads, they took their route along the top of Bald Eagle ridge until they reached Antis' gap, where they descended towards the fort at the head of Nippenose bottom. At the bottom of the hill they were startled by the report of a rifle near the fort, which had been fired by an Indian at a grirl. The girl had just stooped to milk a cow - the harmless bullet passed though her clothes between her limbs and the ground. Milking cows in those days was dangerous work. The Indians had just killed in the woods Abel Cady and Zephaniah Miller, and mortally wounded young Armstrong who died that night. The messengers delivered their orders that all persons should evacuate within a week and they were also to send word up to Horn's fort.

"On his way up Covenhoven had staid all night with Armstrong, who then lived at the head of the long reach where Esq. Seward now lives. Covenhoven warned him to quit but he did not like to abandon his crops and gave no heed to the warning. The Indians came upon him suddenly and took him prisoner with his oldest child and Nancy Bunday; his wife, who was enceinte, concealed herself under the bed and escaped.

"Covenhoven hastened down to his own family, and having taken them safely to Sunbury returned in a keel boat to secure his household furniture. As he was rounding a point above Derrstown (now Lewistown) he met the whole convoy from all the forts above; such a sight he never saw in his life. Boats, canoes, hog-troughs, rafts hastily made dry sticks, every sort of floating article had been put in requisition and were crowded with women, children and 'plunder' - there were several hundred people in all. Whenever any obstruction occurred at a shoal or ripple, the women would leap out and put their shoulders not indeed to the wheel but to the flap boat or raft and launch it again into deep water. The men of the settlement came down in single file on each side of the river to guard the women and children. The whole convoy arrived safely at Sunbury leaving the entire line of farms along the West Branch to the ravages of the Indians. They destroyed Fort Muncy but did not penetrate in any force near Sunbury; their attention soon been diverted to the memorable descent upon Wyoming.

"After Covenhoven had got his bedding, &c. in his boat, and was proceeding down the river just below Fort Menninger, he saw a woman on the shore fleeing from an Indian. She jumped down the riverbank and fell, perhaps wounded by his gun. The Indian scalped her but in his haste neglected to strike her down. She survived the scalping, was picked up by the men from the fort and lived near Warrior's run until about the year 1840. Her name was Mrs. Durham.

"Shortly after the big runaway, Col. Broadhead was ordered up with his forces of 100 or 150 men to rebuild Fort Muncy, and guard the settlers while gathering their crops. After performing the service, he left Fort Pitt and Col. Harley with a battalion succeeded him. Capt. Spaulding from Stroudsburg also came down with a detachment by way of the Wyoming Valley. Having built the barracks at Fort Muncy, they went up on an expedition to burn the Indian towns at Wyalusing, Sheshequin and Tioga. This was just after the great battle of Wyoming and before the British and Indians had finished getting their plunder up the river. After burning the Indian towns, the detachment had a sharp skirmish with the Indians from Wyoming on the left bank of the Susquehanna at the narrows north of the Wyalusing Mountain. Mr. Covenhoven distinguished himself in that affair by his personal bravery. He was holding on by the roots of a tree on the steep precipice when an Indian approached him and called on him to surrender. Mr. C. in reply, presented his gun and shot the Indian through the bowels."

To conclude this chapter, the following notice of the well-known Covenhoven is inserted. "About four miles below Jersey shore, a little south of the road to Williamsport, lives the venerable Robert Covenhoven (commonly known as Mr. Crownover) at the advanced age of 88. His venerable lady is still living with him, her faculties bright and unimpaired. Mr. Covenhoven was born of Low Dutch parents in Monmouth Co. New Jersey. He was much employed during his youth as a hunter and axe man to the surveyors of land in the valleys tributary to the North and West branches of the Susquehanna. The familiarity thus acquires with all paths of that vast wilderness, rendered his services eminently useful as a scout and guide to the military parties of the Revolution, which commences about the time of his arriving at manhood. It is unnecessary to say that the graduate of such a school was fearless and intrepid - that he was skill in the wiles of Indian warfare - and that he possess as iron constitution. With these qualifications at the call of his county in 1776, he joined the campaigns under Gen. Washington. He was at the battles of Trenton and Princeton. His younger brother had also enlisted; but his father took his place and the general, with his characteristic kindness, permitted the boy to return and protect his mother. In the spring of 1777 Robert returned to his home on the West Branch where his services were more needed by the defenseless frontier than on the seacoast. Mr. Covenhoven was one of those men who were always put forward when danger and hard work were encountered, but forgotten when honors and emoluments were to be distributed. Nevertheless he cheerfully sought the post of danger and never shrunk from duty although it might be in a humble station. Few

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